Alexander the Great of Macedon

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SOURCES

1.  Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World
2.  The Greeks and the Persians. Herman Bengtson, 1968, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

 
Background

Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)

King Philip II (359-336 BC) - Rise of Macedonia

Famine in Greece  (330-326 BC)

The Hellenistic World is what happened between the reigns of Alexander the Great [336-323 BC] and Julius Caesar (Augustus) [31 BC-14 AD]

Alexander

His reign: 336-323 BC. He wanted to punish the Persians for their invasion of Greece 150 yrs ago. Within 1 year he controlled Greek cities in Turkey all the way to Gordium in the east.

333 defeated Darius at Issus, then took control of Phoenicia and Egypt

North into Mesopotamia

331 defeated Darius again at Gaugamela. The Persian empire which had been a threat to Greece for 200 years is in the hands of Alexander.

Conquered Sogdiana

Married Roxane

Moves from Afghanistan into Punjab and defeated an Indian king.

His troops revolt and he turns west via Baluchistan. Disastrous like Napoleon's retreat from Moscow

Dies 2 years later at age 32 in Babylon.

Left behind monarchy which was traditional to the Macedonian state which led to 20 yrs of struggles btw kin and generals

275 -  3 Kingdoms established