1. Human Origins Richard E Leakey. 1982.

There is a big gap in the fossil record; not much of anything between 8 to 4 million years ago, even up to 10 million ya. Then Hominids about 4-1 million ya?, earliest from Laetoli, most from Hadar in Ethiopia. That is where Lucy was found in 1974. She is over 3 my old (4-3 mya) Then Mary Leakey finds a 3.6 myo footprint in Laetoli at site G on Aug 2, 1978. Maybe walking on legs 8-6 million ya, australopithecines branched from earlier branch from apes.

Tools 2.5 mya: Hadar and Omo Valley.

Australopithecus africanus (gracile) found Taung, South Africa 1924 by Dart, 2.5-1 million ya. Also found in East Africa, Olduvai Gorge.

Australopithecus Robustus, much larger, South Africa 2 caves: Swartkuans and Kromdraai. East Africa: Olduvai and Lake Turkana. Mary Leakey finds in 1959, they are also 2.5-1 mya. SA: gracile preferred wooded and robustus perfered grassy

Australopithicus die out 1.5-1 mya, EA major change in climate.

Homo Habilis: Richard’s brother Jonathan finds a jaw lived 2 mya – our ancestor, toolmaker. 2 myo skull found (1470) 1972 Lake Turkana

By 1.5 mya -  Homo Erectus. By 1900 HE found in Java and China. 1960 EA: R. Leakey’s dad finds something in Oluvai Gorge showing HE there 1 mya. 1975 HE skull found by Bernard Ngeneo 1.5 myo.

2. Lucy - The Beginning of Humankind  Johanson &Edey.  Penguin 1981.

(also a note from somewhere that homo erectus and ergaster around 1.9 mya and that homo habilis fades 1.8 mya)

HE – 1.5 mya? – 200,000 ya

HSN – 200,000 ya – 50,000

HSS – 50,000 ya – present

19,000,000                  Dryopithecus in Africa. (Proconsul)

15,000,000                  Dryopithecus in Africa and Europe

13,000,000                  Ramapithecus in East Africa

10,000,000                  Dryopithecus and Ramapithecus in Pakistan, India and Europe


6 mya                           Lukeino: Homindid molar

5.5 mya                        Lithagam:part of a Hominid jaw (Hominid is the family.

Australopithecene and Homo are genuses)

4 mya                           Hominid armbone found at Kanapoi

3 mya                           A. Afrarensis in Hadar and Laetoli

3-2 mya                       BLACK HOLE – no homo, australopithicus evidence is weak