Passover – Deliverance of bondage in Egypt
Purim – Esther’s triumph over Hamam
Hanukkah – Purification of the Temple after desecration
by Antiochus Epiphanes
Anciet Israelistes were a Semitic group of nomads in the North Arabic Desert.
leads his people out of slavery under the Pharaohs in Egypt. They cultivated
land in Canaan (modern Israel) between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean.
This land also known as Palestine.
During the reign of Rameses II (1304-1287) key cities in
the Levant such as Beth Shan in the north and Gaza in the South were
strenghtened while others were allowed to decline resulting in homelessness.
Many migrated to the Judean Hill where they established small farming
communities. These dispossessed Canannites were known to the Egyptians as Hapiru
and they became the basis of what was to become Israel. 2
Century BCE: The Philistines,
a sea people from the Aegean Islands (Crete?) invaded Levant on their way to
Egypt. 300 years of battle between (1) the native Canannite inhabitants, (2) the
Jewish? People and (3) the Philistine immigrants until David united the various
In the eighth year of Rameses III (1198-1166) the Egyptian
Empire was invaded by league of peoples of Aegean or southern Anatoli origin
known as the Sea People. One of the six groups these peoples consisted of were
called the Peleset or Philistines. Two battles: one fought in Canaan, one in the
Delta. Rameses claimed victory but these people ended up on the Canannite coast
and developed a distinctive local culture reflecting Aegean background. see
The Egyptians had withdrawn from Canaan leaving a tense and unstable
situation: Canaanite cities in the lowlands, Israelites (Canannite pastoralists)
living in the more barren hill country, and the Philistines in the coastal
plain. Israelites expand into Canaanite territory over next 100 years.
Philistines attempt to expand eastward into Israelite hill country, but the
tribes of Israelites unite first under Saul, then David. 2
captures Jerusalem and proclaimed king of Israelite nation. Later he
defeats the Philistines and expands his territory. However they retain their
coastal strip. Things florish under David’s son Solomon’s rule. Trade
The Temple is built By 30,000 Israelites. And 150,000 Canannites.
It was dedicated for 14 days. Solomon dies in 928 BC and the ‘United
Monarchy’ splits into two kingdoms: Judah in the south with Jerusalem as the
capital and Israel in the north with Samaria as the capital. 2
King David reigns (1000-961) first Judah for 7 years in
Hebron, then conquers (unites) Canaan and rules Israel and Judah from Jerusalem
for 33 years. King Solomon (961-922) Books of Samuel. Then Hebrew kinddom split.
Prophet Amos. 3
and Eighth Century BCE
Assyrians expanding their territory, and their armies advance into
Syria, Pheonicia, Israel and Judah. Local kings must pay high tributes. In 722
BC Samaria falls to the Assyrians. 2
Sennacherib attacks Judah. Book of Judah.
Nabopolassar of Babylon overthrows the Assyrians and takes control
of their lands including Judah. 2
son Nebuchadnezzar raids Judah after a rebellion. Another revolt ten years later
and Neb responds by destroying
The temple is destroyed by
Nebuchadnezzer. The temple is rebuilt after return from exile under leadership
1st Century CE
temple is enlarged by King Herod.
The temple is destroyed by the
See The Hebrew Bible
There are 613 biblical commandments.
Noachide Laws – all non Jews have to observe, ordained after the flood: One God, blasphemy, murder, theft, sexual immorality, eating limbs, courts of law.
Religious obligations of a Jew pertaining to ALL behavior. This is rabbinic literature.
Oral Law. First compiled by Judah-ha Nasi in SIX Orders in
the beginning of the 3rd Century CE. (sedarim)
Zeraim (seeds), Mo’ed (festivals), Nashim (women), Nezikin (damages), Kodashim (holy things), Tohorot (purities)
Based on Sedarim. It is a body of teaching, commentary and
discussion of the Jewish amoraim on the Mishnah.
Amoraim – scholars who interpreted he mishnah in
Palestine and Babylonia btw 200 CE and 500 CE.
Tanna (pl. Tannaim) – Jewish Sage 1,2 Cent CE
Sanhedrin – if existed, a Roman Period in Erez Israel:
political, religious, judiciary body
2ND Century desire for more intimate connection between worshiper and …
End of 12th century movement: Kabbalah
Proceeded in ancient times by Hekhalot and Merkauah mysticism.
Middle ages: Ashkenazi Hasidic Mysteries.
Earliest Kabbalistic sources: Sefer h-bahir and works of R.
Issac the Blind
2. European schools 12 and 13th cent
3. Spain 13-15th cent (to the expulsion from Spain in 1492) Appearance of Zohar, author R. Moses de Leon.
4. 16-18th cent: New centers in Italy, Turkey and Safed
5. Emergence of Hasidic Movement founded by R. Israel Baal Shem Tou: this breaks off into Tsaddikim and Mitnaggedim.
SEFIROT – 1-10 dimensions of the universe.