1. Chronicle of the Popes. The Reign by reign record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present. PG Maxwell-Stuart. Thames and Hudson. 1997
from St. Peter to John Paul II
39 Anti Popes (elected at the same time but candidature invalid)
2 Anti saints
1 openly assassinated
1 publically flogged
1 died of wounds in battle
1 ceiling feel and killed him
Pope Leo X great patron of Renaissance said “God has
given Us the Papacy; now let Us enjoy it!”
Pope in Greek is child’s term of affection for father. In Latin it is honorific. Greek speaking East and Latin West used it for priests, bishops and patriarchs, and still do today in places. Greek Orthodox C(hurch) (in) R(ussia), G(reece) and Serbia call parish priests ‘pope.’
Latin 3rd cent…., 5th applied to bishop of Rome…. After 8th title exculusively his.
Reformation – Protestants go back to calling him only: Bishop of Rome.
English Dictionary 1589: head bishop of the church amlignant, Satan’s Chief vicar on earth.